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Friday, June 14, 2019

35 Top Cloud Computing Interview Questions and Answers {Updated}

Cloud Computing Interview Questions and Answers for experienced PDF, Read commonly asked Cloud Computing Job Interview Questions with Answer PDF for Freshers.


Read Cloud Computing Viva Questions and Answers

What is cloud computing?
The cloud computing is the computing which is completely based on the Internet. It can also be defined as the next stage in the evolution of the Internet. Cloud computing uses the cloud (Internet) that provides the way to deliver the services whenever and wherever the user of the cloud needs. Companies use cloud computing to fulfill the needs of their customers, partners, and providers. Cloud computing includes vendors, partners, and business leaders as the three major contributors. The vendors are the one who provides applications and their related technology, infrastructure, hardware, and integration.

The partners are those who offer cloud services demand and provide support service to the customers. The business leaders are the ones who use or evaluate the cloud service provided by the partners. Cloud computing enables companies to treat their resources as a pool and not as independent resources.


How important is a platform as a service?
Platform as a Service is an important layer in cloud architecture. It is built on the infrastructure model, which provides resources like computers, storage, and network. This layer includes organizing and operate the resources provided by the below layer. It is also responsible to provide complete virtualization of the infrastructure layer to make it look like a single server and keep it hidden from the outside world.

What is the minimal requirement to implement an IAAS Cloud?
The minimal requirement to implement is basically three things:

OS to support hypervisor or a hypervisor.


– Preferably open-source software like Linux and Xen hypervisor


Networking topology and implementation.


– Public Network or Private network with Level 3 Switch


Selection of cloud model as per requirement or business.


– SaaS, Software as a Service


– PaaS, Platform as a Service


– CaaS, Communication as a Service


What are the different data types used in cloud computing?
Cloud computing is going all together for a different look as it now includes different data types like emails, contracts, images, blogs, etc. The amount of data increasing day by day and cloud computing is requiring new and efficient data types to store them. For example, if you want to save a video then you need a data type to save that. Latency requirements are increasing as the demand is increasing. Companies are going for lower latency for many applications.

What does software as a service provider?
Software as Service is another layer of cloud computing, which provides cloud applications like Google is doing, it is providing google docs for the user to save their documents on the cloud and create as well. It provides the applications to be created on the fly without adding or installing any extra software component. It provides built-in software to create wide varieties of applications and documents and share them with other people online.

How is Cloud Computing different from primitive Client-Server Architecture?
The primitive Client-Server architecture is a one-to-one communication between only two physical machines namely Client machine and Server machine (datacenter). Whereas cloud computing, infrastructure is similar to the client side but varies at server-side. The server-side contains the main Cloud Controller that forwards the request to its worker machines known as Nodes. These nodes are grid computing machines that dedicate all its resources to process application. These nodes are maintained in clusters. So a cloud computing infrastructure is quite complicated on the server side that processes all the requests from clients and sends the result back.

What are some open source cloud computing platform databases?
Cloud computing platform has various databases that are in support. The open source databases that are developed to support it is as follows:

1. MongoDB: is an open source database system which is schema free and document-oriented database. It is written in C++ and provides tables and high storage space.


2. CouchDB: is an open source database system based on Apache server and used to store the data efficiently


3. LucidDB: is the database made in Java/C++ for data warehousing. It provides features and functionalities to maintain a data warehouse.


What are the different deployment models?
Cloud computing supports many deployment models and they are as follows:

– Private Cloud


Organizations choose to build there private cloud as to keep the strategic, operation and other reasons to themselves and they feel more secure to do it. It is a complete platform which is fully functional and can be owned, operated and restricted to only an organization or an industry. More organizations have moved to private clouds due to security concerns. Virtual private cloud is being used that operate by a hosting company.


– Public Cloud


These are the platforms which are public means open to the people for use and deployment. For example, Google, Amazon, etc. They focus on a few layers like cloud application, an infrastructure providing and providing platform markets.


– Hybrid Clouds


It is the combination of public and private cloud. It is the most robust approach to implement cloud architecture as it includes the functionalities and features of both the worlds. It allows organizations to create their own cloud and allow them to give control over to someone else as well.


Why should one prefer public cloud over the private cloud?
The cloud technology is the best example of sustainable technology that utilizes all the computing resources. If a person needs to set up a quick business and wants to host its website, he need not require to set up a full-fledged private cloud. Rather he should go for public cloud hosting that provides different pay-per-use subscriptions, which could actually result in being economical. There are numbers of vendors that provide such services like godaddy.com etc.

How to secure your data for transport in the cloud?
Cloud computing provides very good and easy to use the feature to an organization, but at the same time, it brings lots of question that how secure is the data, which has to be transported from one place to another in the cloud. So, to make sure it remains secure when it moves from point A to point B in the cloud, check that there is no data leak with the encryption key implemented with the data you send.

What essential things a user should know before going for cloud computing platform?
A user should know some parameters by which he can go for the cloud computing services. The parameters are as follows:

1. User should know the data integrity in cloud computing: It is a measure to ensure integrity like the data is accurate, complete and reasonable.


2. Compliance: user should make sure that proper rules and regulations are followed while implementing the structure.


3. Loss of data: user should know about the provisions that are provided in case of loss of data so that backup and recovery can be possible.


4. Business continuity plans: user should think about does the cloud services provide him uninterrupted data resources.


5. Uptime: user should know about the uptime the cloud computing platform provides and how helpful it is for the business.


6. Data storage costs: user should find out about the cost which you have to pay before you go for cloud computing.


Is it cost effective to implement a private cloud rather than a public cloud and why?
It depends on the type of business that demands a cloud setup. Suppose if the subscription on a public cloud for an application that is to be deployed on OS images is proving to be more costly then to buy some new datacenters and maintain them. Then obviously a private cloud has to be set up instead of a public cloud. This public clouds follow utility billing methodology as an electricity bill for example.

What is the security aspects provided with cloud?
Security is one of the major aspects which come with any application and service used by the user. Companies or organizations remain much more concerned with the security provided with the cloud. There are many levels of security which have to be provided within the cloud environment such as:

– Identity management: it authorizes the application service or hardware component to be used by authorized users.


– Access control: permissions have to be provided to the users so that they can control the access of other users who are entering in the cloud environment.


– Authorization and authentication: provision should be made to allow the authorized and authenticated people only to access and change the applications and data.


What are Hypervisor in Cloud Computing and its types?
The hypervisor is a virtual machine monitor (VMM) that manages resources for virtual machines. The name hypervisor is suggested as it is a supervisory tool for the virtual machines. There are mainly two types of hypervisors :

Type-1: the guest VM runs directly over the host hardware, e.g Xen, Hyper-V, VMware ESXi


Type-2: the guest VM runs over hardware through a host OS, e.g KVM, Oracle VirtualBox


Is Cloud computing an application?
The Cloud Computing is not an application but it is a methodology that deploys the application in a custom fashion on a server. It can be also learned as an advanced model of client-server architecture that is highly flexible, scalable and configurable. This architecture leverages high performance out of machines with quite an ease of management.

How cloud services are measured?
Cloud computing provides the services to the organizations so they can run their applications and install them on the cloud. Virtualization is used to deploy the cloud computing models as it provides a hidden layer between the user and the physical layer of the system. The cloud services are measured in terms of use. Pay as much as you use that can be on the basis of hours or months or years. Cloud services allow users to pay for only what they use and according to the demand, the charges or the prices gets increased.

What do you understand from VPN?
VPN stands for the virtual private network; it is a private cloud which manages the security of the data during the transport in the cloud environment. VPN allows an organization to make a public network as a private network and use it to transfer files and other resources on a network.

What do you understand by CaaS?
CaaS is a terminology given in the telecom industry as Communication as a Service. The Voice-over-Ip (VoIP) follows the same delivery model. CaaS can offer enterprise user features such as desktop call control, presence, unified messaging, and desktop faxing. In addition to the enterprise features, CaaS also has a set of services for contact center automation that includes IVR, ACD, call recording, multimedia routing (e-mail and text chat), and screen pop integration.

What are the optimizing strategies used in the cloud?
To optimize the cost and other resources there is a concept of three-data-center which provides backups in cases of disaster recovery and allows you to keep all the data intact in the case of any failure within the system. System management can be done more efficiently by carrying out pre-emptive tasks on the services and the processes which are running for the job. Security can be more advanced to allow only limited users to access the services.

What does a VPN consist of?
VPN is known as a virtual private network and it consists of two important things:

1. Firewall: it acts as a barrier between the public network and any private network. It filters the messages that are getting exchanged between the networks. It also protects from any malicious activity being done on the network.


2. Encryption: it is used to protect the sensitive data from professional hackers and other spammers who usually remain active to get the data. With a message always there will be a key with which you can match the key provided to you.


How does cloud computing provides on-demand functionality?
Cloud computing is a metaphor used for the internet. It provides on-demand access to virtualized IT resources that can be shared by others or subscribed by you. It provides an easy way to provide configurable resources by taking it from a shared pool. The pool consists of networks, servers, storage, applications, and services.

What is the requirement of virtualization platforms in implementing cloud?
Virtualization is the basis of the cloud computing and there are many platforms that are available like VMware is a technology that provides the provision to create a private cloud and provide a bridge to connect external cloud with private cloud. There are three key features that have to be identified to make a private cloud that is:

– Cloud operating system.


– Manage the Service level policies


– Virtualization keeps the user level and the backend level concepts different from each other so that a seamless environment can be created between both.


What is the difference between scalability and elasticity?
Scalability is a characteristic of cloud computing through which increasing workload can be handled by increasing in proportion the amount of resource capacity. It allows the architecture to provide on-demand resources if the requirement is being raised by the traffic. Whereas, elasticity is being one of the characteristic provide the concept of commissioning and decommissioning of a large amount of resource capacity dynamically. It is measured by the speed by which the resources are coming on demand and the usage of the resources.

What is the use of eucalyptus in the cloud computing environment?
Eucalyptus stands for Elastic Utility Computing Architecture for Linking Your Programs to Useful Systems and provides an open source software infrastructure to implement clusters in the cloud computing platform. It is used to build private, public and hybrid clouds. It can also produce your own datacenter into a private cloud and allow you to extend the functionality to many other organizations. Eucalyptus provides APIs to be used with the web services to cope up with the demand of resources used in the private clouds.

What are the different datacenters deployed for this?

Cloud computing is made up of various data centers put together in a grid form. It consists of different datacenters like:


– Containerized Datacenters


These are the traditional data centers that allow a high level of customization with servers, mainframe, and other resources. It requires planning, cooling, networking, and power to access and work.


– Low-Density Datacenters


These data centers are optimized to give high performance. In these data centers, the space constraint is being removed and there is an increased density. It has a drawback that with high density the heat issue also creeps in. These data centers are very much suitable to develop the cloud infrastructure.


Is there any difference in cloud computing and computing for mobiles?
Mobile cloud computing uses the same concept but it just adds a device of mobile. Cloud computing comes into action when a task or data get kept on the internet rather than individual devices. It provides users on-demand access to the data which they have to retrieve. Applications run on the remote server and then given to the user to be able to, store and manage it from the mobile platform.

What is the use of API in cloud services?
API stands for Application programming interface is very useful in cloud platforms as it allows easy implementation of it on the system. It removes the need to write full-fledged programs. It provides the instructions to make the communication between one or more applications. It also allows easy to create an application with ease and link the cloud services with other systems.


What are the advantages of cloud services?
Some of the advantages of cloud service are given as follows:

Helps in the utilization of investment in the corporate sector; and therefore, is cost saving.


Helps in developing scalable and robust applications. Previously, the scaling took months, but now, scaling takes less time.


Helps in saving time in terms of deployment and maintenance.


What are the different modes of software as a service?
Software as a Service provides cloud application platform on which the user can create an application with the tools provided. The modes of software as a service are defined as:

1. Simple multi-tenancy: in this, each user has its own resources that are different from other users. It is an inefficient mode where the user has to put more time and money to add more infrastructure if the demand rises in less time to deliver.


2. Fine grain multi-tenancy: in this, the functionality remains the same that the resources can be shared to many. But it is more efficient as the resources are shared not the data and permission within an application.


What are the different layers of cloud computing?
Cloud computing consists of 3 layers in the hierarchy and these are as follows:

1. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) provides cloud infrastructure in terms of hardware like memory, processor speed, etc.


2. Platform as a Service (PaaS) provides a cloud application platform for the developers.


3. Software as a Service (SaaS) provides cloud applications which are used by the user directly without installing anything on the system. The application remains on the cloud and it can be saved and edited in there only.


Are Type-1 Hypervisors better in performance than Type-2 Hypervisors and Why?
Yes, the Type-1 Hypervisors are better in performance as compared to Type-2 hypervisors because Type-1 hypervisors do not run through a host OS, they utilize all resources directly from Host hardware. In cloud implementation, Type-1 hypervisors are used rather than Type-2 because Cloud servers need to run multiple OS images and it should be noted that if OS images are run on host an OS as in case of Type-2, the resources will get wasted.

What is the difference between traditional datacenters and cloud?
Cloud computing uses the concept of the datacenter as it is the data center is based on the tradition one so the difference between them are as follows:

– Cost of the traditional data center is higher, due to heating issues and other hardware/software related issues but this is not the case with the cloud computing infrastructure.


– It gets scaled when the demand increases. Most of the cost is being spent on the maintenance being performed on the datacenters, whereas cloud platform requires minimum maintenance and not very expert hand to handle them.


What resources are provided by infrastructure as a service?
Infrastructure as a Service provides physical and virtual resources that are used to build a cloud. Infrastructure deals with the complexities of maintaining and deploying the services provided by this layer. The infrastructure here is the servers, storage, and other hardware systems.

What are the characteristics on which a Cloud Computing Model should be selected for implementing and managing the workload?
Scalability is a characteristic of cloud computing through which increasing workload can be handled by increasing in proportion the amount of resource capacity. It allows the architecture to provide on-demand resources if the requirement is being raised by the traffic. Whereas, elasticity is being one of the characteristic provide the concept of commissioning and decommissioning of a large amount of resource capacity dynamically. It is measured by the speed by which the resources are coming on demand and the usage of the resources.

What are the three cost factors involves in the cloud data center?
Cloud data center doesn’t require experts to operate it, but it requires skilled people to see the maintenance, maintain the workloads and to keep the track of the traffic. The labor cost is 6% of the total cost to operate the cloud data center. Power distribution and cooling of the datacenter cost 20% of the total cost. Computing cost is at the end and is the highest as it is where lots of resources and installation has to be done. It costs the maximum left percentage.

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